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Tourism in the Sultanate of Oman

Oman, SE Arabian Peninsula, diverse geography, rich culture, and history. Hajar Mountains, deserts, Arabian Sea coastlines. Bedouin traditions, warm hospitality, music, culinary heritage. Arabic official, English widely spoken. Sultan Qaboos modernized Oman through colonization. A blend of history, tradition, and natural beauty.

Language and Communication

In Arabic-speaking Oman, basic Arabic phrases foster positive interactions and daily life navigation.


  • “Marhaba” –Hello.
  • “Sabah al-khair” – Good morning.
  • “Masa’ al-khair” – Good evening.
  • “Wada’an” – Goodbye.

Common Courtesies

  • “Min fadlik” – Please.
  • “Shukran”– Thank you.
  • “Na’am” – Yes.
  • “La”  – No.

Basic Questions

  • “Ma ismuka?” – What’s your name?
  • “Kam hatha?” – How much is this?
  • “Ayna al-marah al-‘amm?” – Where’s the restroom?
  • “Ana b – I need help.
  • .


  • “Wahed” – One.
  • “Itnein” – Two.
  • “Thalatha”  – Three.
  • “Ashara” – Ten.

Local Experiences

  • Wadi Bashing: Explore dry riverbeds, and wadis, by hiking or 4×4 vehicles.
  • Tradition Souks: Visit bustling markets, like Mutrah Souq in Muscat.
  • Omani Cuisine: Try “shuwa” and fresh seafood.
  • Frankincense Route: Explore UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Omani Hospitality: Stay at guesthouses, and attend “majlis” gatherings.
  • Tradition Arts and Crafts: Visit artisan workshops.
  • Cultural Festivals: Plan visits around the Muscat Festival or Khareef Festival.

Local Traditions and Etiquette

  • Greetings: Nod, touch chest, say “Salam alaykum.”
  • Dress Modestly: Modest attire, especially at religious sites.
  • Respect Religion: Remove shoes in mosques and avoid public displays of affection.
  • Public Behavior: Maintain calm and composure.
  • Gift Giving: Small tokens, dates, frankincense.
  • Eating Customs: Accept offered food, using the right hand.
  • Tipping: Optional, round up bills.
  • Language: Learn basic Arabic phrases, English widely spoken.

Top Tourist Destinations

  • Muscat: Capital city blending modernity and tradition. Attractions: Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Royal Opera House, Mutrah Corniche, Old Town souks, and forts.
  • Nizwa: Known as the “Pearl of Islam.” Iconic Nizwa Fort, engaging souk, Nizwa Goat Market cultural experience.
  • Salalah: In the south, lush during Khareef (monsoon). Beaches, Al-Baleed Archaeological Park, Sultan Qaboos Mosque, Wadi Darbat, and Ubar.
  • Wahiba Sands: Vast desert with Bedouin culture. Desert safaris, camel rides, camping, ever-shifting dunes.
  • Jebel Akhdar: “Green Mountain” in Hajar range. Oasis for hikers, with terraced farms, a cool climate, picturesque villages, rose gardens, and fruit orchards.
  • Jebel Shams: “Grand Canyon of Oman.” Panoramic views, trekking, Balcony Walk into a deep canyon.
  • Ras Al Jinz: Coastal area, nesting ground for green turtles. Guided tours to witness egg-laying.
  • Sur: Historic coastal town, traditional dhow shipyards. Explore Old Town and visit the Sur Maritime Museum.
  • Jabrin Castle: Well-preserved historic fort in Bahla. Intricate carvings, magnificent frescoes, insight into Omani architecture, art, and history.

Cultural Attractions

  • Bait Al Zubair Museum (Muscat): Omani heritage repository, traditional clothing, weaponry, jewelry, historical documents, and architectural features.
  • National Museum of Oman (Muscat): Comprehensive look at Oman’s history, culture, and natural environment. Interactive exhibits, multimedia presentations, ancient relics, and contemporary artworks.
  • Nizwa Fort (Nizwa): Outstanding example of Omani architecture. Engaging architectural tour, informative exhibits, and labyrinthine passageways.
  • Bahla Fort (Bahla): UNESCO World Heritage site. Insights into traditional Omani construction techniques, and views of Bahla town.
  • Al Hoota Cave (Al Hamra): Natural wonder in Al Jabal Al Akhdar Mountains. Guided tours, stalactites, stalagmites, geological history.
  • Jibreen Castle in Bahla: Exquisite interior, painted ceilings, Omani architecture, craftsmanship, insight into aristocracy’s life.
  • Salalah Museum: Insights into cultural history, frankincense trade heritage, maritime traditions (southern Oman).
  • Mutrah Souq (Muscat): Renowned traditional market. Winding alleyways, spices, textiles, antiques, souvenirs, vibrant local market culture.

Natural Wonders

  • Wahiba Sands (Sharqiyah Sands): Vast sand dunes for desert adventures like camel trekking, sandboarding, and dune bashing.
  • Hajar Mountains: Rugged peaks, and dramatic valleys ideal for trekking and hiking. Jebel Shams offers breathtaking vistas and the thrilling Balcony Walk.
  • Jebel Akhdar (Green Mountain): Cooler climate, lush green terraces, fruit orchards, rose gardens, and traditional farming techniques.
  • Wadis of Oman: Dry riverbeds that come to life during the rainy season, offering cool oasis-like pools for hiking, swimming, and exploring hidden caves and pools. Popular wadis include Wadi Shab, Bani Khalid, and Tiwi.
  • Oman’s Coastline: Expansive coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Stunning beaches, rugged cliffs, charming fishing villages, and watersport opportunities like dolphin watching. Muscat, Sur, and Salalah are ideal for watersports and relaxation.
  • Desert Oases: Green oasis patches amid the dunes, such as Duqm and Al Ashkharah in Al Wusta, provide striking visuals and essential ecosystem services.
  • Salalah’s Khareef Season: During monsoon season, Salalah’s desert landscape transforms into a lush green paradise with mist-covered hills and waterfalls. This rare opportunity to witness nature rejuvenating.
  • Al Hoota Cave: Extensive limestone cave system with magnificent stalactites and stalagmites. Guided tours offer a subterranean adventure deep beneath the Earth’s crust.
  • Oman’s Islands: Masirah Island, Daymaniyat Islands Nature Reserve, Masirah Beach, and wildlife viewing. Abundant marine life, snorkeling opportunities, white-sand beaches on Masirah Beach, and vibrant coral reefs at Daymaniyat Islands.

Adventure and Outdoor Activities

  • Desert Safari and Dune Bashing: Thrilling 4×4 rides over sand dunes in Wahiba Sands with experienced drivers.
  • Camel Trekking: Experience tranquil desert transportation on camel treks, witnessing stunning sunsets and the peaceful desert life rhythm.
  • Hiking and Trekking: Explore Oman’s scenic trails, ancient villages, and dramatic landscapes in the Hajar Mountains and Jebel Shams. Don’t miss Jebel Shams’ Balcony Walk.
  • Rock Climbing: Challenge yourself in Oman’s mountains, including Jebel Misht, Jebel Akhdar, and Jebel Shams, popular spots for rock climbers.
  • Caving: Al Hoota Cave offers guided tours to explore stunning underground chambers and formations, an exciting adventure beneath the Earth’s surface.
  • Snorkeling and Scuba Diving: Discover abundant marine life, colorful coral reefs, and crystal-clear waters along the Daymaniyat Islands and the Musandam Peninsula.
  • Kayaking and Canyoning: Outstanding kayaking and canyoning opportunities in wadis like Wadi Shab and Wadi Tiwi. Navigate lush waters and narrow canyons with experienced guides.
  • Quad Biking and Off-Roading: Explore Oman’s desert on ATVs or quad bikes, with thrilling off-roading trails to discover.
  • Turtle Watching: Observe green turtles nesting on Oman’s beaches, especially at Ras Al Jinz and Ras Al Hadd, with guided viewing tours during egg-laying.
  • Camping: Choose from ideal campsites in Oman, from desert dunes and mountains to the coastline. Experience starlit skies and the sounds of waves for unforgettable camping adventures.

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    Culinary Delights

    • Shuwa: Iconic Omani dish, whole lamb marinated with spices for up to 48 hours, slow-cooked underground in a sand oven for another 48 hours. Tender and flavorful meat.
    • Majboos: Oman’s national dish, fragrant rice cooked with spices and dried limes, paired with meat (e.g., chicken or lamb) for a hearty, aromatic meal reflecting Bedouin heritage.
    • Harees: Aromatic dish of slow-cooked ground wheat and meat, creating a porridge-like consistency. Typically served during Ramadan or special events.
    • Mandi: Aromatic rice dish with tender meat, infused with saffron, cinnamon, and cloves for a distinct flavor. Ideal for special occasions.
    • Mushaltat: Popular snack, stuffed pastries with cheese, minced meat, or vegetables. Served with Omani chili sauce for an irresistibly tasty treat.
    • Balaleet: Sweet and savory breakfast option, featuring thin vermicelli noodles cooked with sugar, saffron, and cardamom, topped with a fragrant omelet. A delightful combination of flavors.
    • Halwa: Delicious dessert made with rosewater, saffron, ghee, sugar, nuts, and spices. Served alongside Omani coffee as a sign of hospitality.
    • Medjool dates: High-grade Medjool dates are a prized Omani snack and a symbol of Omani hospitality.
    • Experience Omani Culture While Dining: Enjoy dining in Majlis, an Omani gathering space, for an immersive cultural experience. Sample local dishes and converse with Omani hosts.
    • Omani Coffee: Try “karak,” specialty coffee served in small cups with dates. An important symbol of Omani hospitality and a pleasant way to end meals or social gatherings.

    Festivals and Events

    • Muscat Festival: Annual cultural celebration in January and February. Features traditional music, dance performances, art exhibitions, fireworks, and a bustling souk with local handicrafts and cuisine.
    • Salalah Tourism Festival: Held from late June to early September during the Khareef season. Showcases lush green landscapes and cultural heritage in Salalah. Cultural performances, food stalls, and vibrant atmosphere.
    • Renaissance Day: Celebrated every July 23rd to commemorate Sultan Qaboos’ rise to power. National holiday with parades, concerts, and fireworks in major cities like Muscat.
    • Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha: Celebrated with gusto. Eid Al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan with feasting and family reunions. Eid Al-Adha honors Abraham with prayers, feasting, and gift exchange.
    • Oman Food Festival: Annual event in Muscat featuring Omani and international cuisines, cooking demonstrations, and food-related activities. A delight for foodies.
    • Nizwa Date Festival: Annual festival in Nizwa’s historic center celebrating Oman’s date industry. Exhibitions of different date varieties and related products, along with traditional Omani culture.
    • Camel Races: Beloved tradition in Oman, with regular events, especially in the Bidiyah region. Visitors can watch camel races and enjoy the festive atmosphere.
    • Modern Music and Arts Festivals: Increasing occurrence of modern music and arts festivals showcasing local and international talent, representing a mix of traditional and contemporary artistic expression.
    • Hiking and Adventure Events: Oman’s landscapes serve as settings for adventure and hiking events, including trail running competitions and desert races, offering a unique way to appreciate the country’s natural beauty.

    Shopping in Oman

    • Traditional Souqs (Muscat): Explore Mutrah Souq in Muscat, a labyrinthine market offering traditional Omani clothing, incense, jewelry, antiques, and souvenirs.
    • Nizwa Souq (Nizwa): Experience authenticity at Nizwa Souq with handmade silver jewelry, pottery, spices, and lively livestock markets every Friday.
    • Salalah Souq (Salalah): Discover locally made products like frankincense, textiles, and perfumes in Salalah’s market, a glimpse into Omani heritage.
    • Ibri Souq (Ibri): Purchase traditional Omani clothing, handicrafts, and local produce in Ibri’s friendly traditional souq.

    Modern shopping malls

    • Muscat Grand Mall (Muscat): One of Oman’s largest shopping centers, offering international and local brands, restaurants, cinemas, and entertainment options.
    • City Centre Muscat (Muscat): An eclectic blend of fashion, electronics, and dining outlets, making it a prime destination for shopping and leisure.
    • Oman Avenues Mall (Muscat): Provides a unique shopping experience with an extensive range of stores, a food court, and family-oriented attractions.
    • Markaz Al Bahja (Muscat): Known for its spacious design and variety of stores specializing in fashion, electronics, and hypermarket products.

    What to Buy

    • Frankincense: Oman’s famous high-grade frankincense, available in various forms like resin, incense, and essential oil.
    • Omani Silver Jewelry: Hand-crafted silver jewelry with intricate designs and traditional motifs, making for unforgettable souvenirs.
    • Textiles: Look for exquisite Omani textiles such as scarves, shawls, and dishdashas (traditional men’s clothing).
    • Pottery: Vibrantly hued Omani pottery with intricate patterns, including plates and decorative pieces.
    • Omani Coffee Sets: Dallah, Omani coffee sets, are popular souvenirs.
    • Daggers (Khanjar): Khanjar, a traditional Omani dagger with a curved blade, symbolizing honor and is often worn during formal occasions as a sign of respect.

    Accommodation Options

     Luxury Resorts and Hotels

    • Beachfront Resorts: Oman offers luxurious beachfront resorts like The Chedi Muscat and Six Senses Zighy Bay with private beaches, spa facilities, and fine dining.
    • Desert Retreats: Experience luxury in the desert with camps like Wahiba Sands’ Wahiba Camps, offering lavish tents, gourmet dining, and stargazing.
    • Mountain Resorts: In the Hajar Mountains, indulge in luxury at resorts like Anantara Al Jabal Al Akhdar Resort, known for incredible scenery and accommodations.
    • Historical Properties: Some hotels, like Al Baleed Resort Salalah by Anantara, feature beautifully restored historic structures, once used as royal palaces.

     Mid-Range Hotels

    Oman offers numerous mid-range hotels, often part of international chains, providing comfortable rooms at reasonable rates. Boutique and heritage hotels are scattered across Oman, especially in historic cities like Nizwa, offering a blend of comfort and local charm in traditional Omani buildings.

     Budget Hotels and Hostels

    Major cities such as Muscat and Salalah offer budget-conscious travelers options like budget hotels and hostels, providing comfortable lodging at competitive rates.

     Campsites & Desert Camping

    Oman offers camping opportunities in breathtaking landscapes, from beachside tent camping to desert camps in the Wahiba Sands, providing an immersive connection with nature.

    Airbnb or Vacation Rentals

    Airbnb and similar platforms offer various accommodation options, including apartments, villas, and traditional Omani houses for an authentic experience.

    Ecolodges and Retreats

    Oman’s natural beauty has inspired eco-lodges and wellness retreats in serene locations, emphasizing sustainability and holistic well-being.

    Transit Hotels

    Major transportation hubs like Muscat International Airport have transit hotels catering to travelers with layovers or early morning flights.

    Travel Tips

    Visa Requirements

    Review visa requirements based on nationality and purpose of visit. Check with the Omani Embassy or Consulate in advance.


    Ensure routine vaccinations are up-to-date and consider additional vaccines such as Hepatitis A or Typhoid based on travel plans.

     Health Insurance

    Verify that your health insurance covers international emergencies and expenses.

    Stay Hydrated

    Drink plenty of water, especially in hot and dry areas like deserts or mountains.

     Sun Protection

    Pack sunscreen, sunglasses, and a wide-brimmed hat for sun protection.

     Respect Local Customs

    Follow modest dress standards, especially when visiting religious sites. Women should cover their shoulders and knees.


    Familiarize yourself with Omani road rules if renting a car and be cautious in rural areas. Carry necessary documents and ID.

     Public Transportation

    Utilize Oman’s comprehensive road network, public transit system, taxis, buses, and domestic flights for travel within the country.

     Currency and Payments

    Currency Exchange: The official currency in Oman is the Omani Rial (OMR), and exchange services are available at airports, banks, and exchange offices.

    Credit Cards: While credit cards are widely accepted in major cities and tourist areas, it’s advisable to carry cash for smaller establishments or markets.


    Language: Arabic is the official language, but English is commonly spoken in urban areas and the tourism industry.

    Cultural Respect

    • Greetings: When meeting Omanis, it’s customary to exchange greetings by shaking hands and inquiring about one’s well-being.
    • Ramadan: During Ramadan, be respectful of the fasting period and avoid consuming food or drinks in public during daylight hours. Smoking should also be refrained from.
    • Photography: Always seek permission before taking photographs of people, especially in rural areas, and refrain from photographing military or government installations.

     Local Customs

    Friday Closures: Note that Friday is a holy day in Oman, and many businesses and attractions may close early in the morning for worship services or religious observance.

    Alcohol: Oman has strict regulations on alcohol consumption. Licensed hotels and restaurants may serve alcohol, and non-Muslim visitors can purchase it from duty-free shops upon arrival.

    Respect Local Culture and Traditions

    • Familiarize yourself with Omani customs and cultural norms before visiting religious sites or rural areas.
    • Dress modestly, especially when visiting conservative areas.
    • Always ask for permission before taking photos of people, particularly in rural or conservative areas.

    Reduce Plastic Waste

    • Carry a reusable water bottle to minimize plastic waste. Oman has water dispensers where you can refill your bottle with drinking water.
    • Dispose of waste responsibly and carry it with you when visiting natural areas, especially when bins are not available.

    Conserve Water and Energy

    Be conscious of water and energy consumption in your accommodation. Turn off lights, air conditioning units, and taps when not in use.

    Join efforts for water conservation, especially in arid regions, by minimizing unnecessary water and energy use.

    Select Eco-Friendly Tours and Activities

    Look for tour operators and activities that prioritize sustainability and eco-friendly practices, such as desert camps following Leave No Trace principles.

    Support Conservation Efforts

    Follow established trails and guidelines to minimize your impact on the environment during outdoor activities like hiking and camping.

    Consider visiting wildlife reserves and national parks, where entrance fees contribute to conservation efforts. Respect wildlife by observing from a distance.

    Reduce Carbon Footprint

    Use public transportation or carpool to reduce emissions. Oman has public bus services and fuel-efficient rental cars available.

    Practice Responsible Diving and Snorkeling

    Be cautious not to damage coral reefs or disturb marine life during water-based activities. Avoid touching or collecting coral and use reef-safe sunscreen.

    Conserve Energy in Desert Camps

    Many desert camps in Oman rely on generators for electricity. Be mindful of your energy consumption, including air conditioning usage and device charging.

    Omani Arts and Crafts

    Oman has a rich heritage of arts and crafts that reflect the creativity and craftsmanship of its people. Visitors can explore and purchase a wide range of locally made items that make for perfect souvenirs. Here are some highlights of Omani arts and crafts:

    • Silver Jewelry: Omani silver jewelry is renowned for its intricate designs and traditional motifs. You can find beautifully crafted pieces like necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and rings adorned with semi-precious stones like turquoise.
    • Pottery and Ceramics: Omani pottery is known for its vibrant colors and intricate patterns. You’ll come across decorative plates, bowls, and practical items like incense burners, all showcasing Omani ceramic artistry.
    • Textiles: Omani textiles are prized for their quality and craftsmanship. Look for intricately woven scarves, shawls, and traditional men’s clothing known as dishdashas, featuring signature Omani patterns and embroidery.
    • Khanjar Daggers: The Khanjar dagger is an iconic Omani weapon with its distinctive curved blade. While it was historically worn to denote honor and authority, today it’s often a part of formal dress and makes for an impressive souvenir.
    • Camel Leather Products: Given Oman’s desert history, camel leather is commonly used to craft items like bags, wallets, and belts. These products are not only stylish but also durable.
    • Paintings and Calligraphy: Omani artists create stunning paintings that depict the country’s landscapes and culture. Islamic calligraphy art adds an elegant touch to home decor.
    • Souq Shopping: Traditional markets (souks) in Oman, such as Mutrah Souq in Muscat and Nizwa Souq in Nizwa, offer a wide array of authentic Omani crafts. You can interact with local artisans and discover unique items in these bustling markets.

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